With a high cost of time, resources and life, the world has recognized that the transformation of life must necessarily be characterized by positive cumulative game characteristics. In other words, the development to be sought and sought should be inclusive and sustainable. The term inclusive itself has a multiple of components and dimensions. The target groups for inclusion in development interventions differ in terms of the amount and type of shares involved. Involving one target group can be done as a productive provider, while engaging another group can serve, for example, to prevent access to potential benefits. There might even be ethnic dimensions. In addition, the understanding of the term sustainability has gone far beyond what the report on our common future first gave the Brundtland Commission. It now encompasses aspects of finance, food security, social peace, shared prosperity, gender equality, children’s rights and much more.

Now all of these assurances must be given through every development in processing and experience. This understanding of development has two aspects: a moral aspect and a component. In the case of the Kashmir region, the moral aspect of development must deal directly with issues of inclusion and sustainability. In addition, the moral aspect has two other components of governance that need to be addressed first. First, the hitherto weak link between government and the public needs to be established. Second, evolving development should be able to address federal issues in a convergent way.

Regarding the component aspect of development, I must hurry to say that development is no longer viewed as the result of a one-off intervention and a one-dimensional phenomenon. While it was previously believed that development could be achieved through selected focal points of areas of intervention, while much of other areas are ignored. In other words, it was believed that development could be done with one-dimensional approaches, but from around the late 1980s it is now emphasized that appreciating the multidimensional nature of the development process is paramount.

With this in mind, the Kashmir region can now be the region that provides a global lesson for a comprehensive and inclusive model of development intervention. Here the Dal Lake can be seen as a starting point for the development of comprehensive and sustainable development strategies for the Kashmir region.

I understand that there have been some studies by different experts from different specializations. What I am aiming for in this piece is a little articulation about how we can think about a comprehensive and sustainable development strategy in the context of this lake.

Now the keyword is context. As we all understand, unlike other lakes elsewhere, Dal Lake is an urban lake. So what happens in the surrounding urban areas is necessarily an integral part of the lake’s quality of life. So thinking about the lake has to start with the nature of urbanization. A comprehensive and sustainable development model has to be in place before we can imagine a development model for the lake. No model is sacrosanct in itself and not related to another. The city model should contain adequate provisions to address issues related to land use, demographics, education, health, hygiene, waste disposal and other infrastructure. While policy interventions are set in these different dimensions, the approach cannot be a stand-alone intervention but a coordinated, coherent and comprehensive one.

If we have a coordinated, coherent and comprehensive urban policy, we can also think about a coordinated, coherent and comprehensive policy for the lake. We emphasize the need to start with the existing urban development model so that a stand-alone intervention for the lake is unsustainable, as the negative externalities resulting from urban activities would sooner or later diminish the potential benefits of interventions in the lake alone .

The lake’s coordinated, coherent and comprehensive policy should have inclusive and sustainable features. The lake must be seen as one of the key composites of ecology. In the further development of the development model of the lake, the health, hygiene and sustainability of the lake must be in the foreground. An important determinant here is the health of the surrounding ecology of the lake, a sub-model of which must be an essential part of the holistic lake model. Therefore, we have to pay attention to the health, hygiene and sustainability of the water itself. The supply of the flora and fauna of the lake with the water in the lake itself would depend on this. Then a unique feature of the Dal arises – the presence of the boat houses. This raises the issue of stakeholders as well as the issue of health and hygiene at the same time.

Assuming that we are able to develop a coordinated, coherent and comprehensive policy that has the inclusiveness and sustainability properties for the lake discussed above, we must now limit ourselves to questions of funding and the nature of property rights . When it comes to finance, the importance of the Dal stems from its potential ability to address the federalism problems that have plagued the Kashmir region for some time. Next, we need to be clear about how the lake is being treated – either as a Commons or a Private Resource. Given the nature of the place and existence, it may be best to think of it as a commons. However, we must hurry to add that we may be more likely to see these commons for the various potential benefits they would provide as infrastructure for the needs of traditional flora and fauna as well as human interest groups. In this case, the principle of governance may be management rather than control. Effective management can better create the framework for a coordinated, coherent and comprehensive policy.

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